26. What would you do for capital budgeting if you have limited resources?
a. Focus on the projects the firm has already invested in
b. Reduce short-term and long-term debt.
c. Rank good looking projects and choose from the most “profitable” ones
d. evaluate to determine good projects
e. Determine the size, timing, and risk of a firm’s future cash flows.
27. What is the decision rule for IRR?
a. Accept a project when IRR > 0
b. Accept a project if at the IRR the NPV is positive
c. Reject any project if the IRR is below 10%
d. Accept a project if the IRR exceeds the firm’s bank borrowing rate
e. Accept a project if the IRR exceeds the firm’s required rate of return
28. What is the % of total financing by common equity if the total $12m funding include $7.5m from debt assuming no preferred stocks are used?
29. You have only three investment opportunities as follows: Project A with 5% return, Project B with 7% return, Project C with 9% return. What should be the required rate of return when you consider for Project B?
30. Lasik Vision Inc. recently analyzed the project whose cash flows are shown below. However, before Lasik decided to accept or reject the project, the Federal Reserve took actions that changed interest rates and therefore the firm’s WACC. The Fed’s action did not affect the forecasted cash flows. By how much did the change in the WACC affect the project’s forecasted NPV? Note that a project’s projected NPV can be negative, in which case it should be rejected.
Old WACC: 8.00% New WACC: 11.25%
Year 0 1 2 3
Cash flows -$1,000 $410 $410 $410
31. Hindelang Inc. is considering a project that has the following cash flow and WACC data. What is the project’s MIRR? Note that a project’s projected MIRR can be less than the WACC (and even negative), in which case it will be rejected.
Year 0 1 2 3 4
Cash flows -$850 $300 $320 $340 $360
32. Stern Associates is considering a project that has the following cash flow data. What is the project’s payback?
Year 0 1 2 3 4 5
Cash flows -$1,100 $300 $310 $320 $330 $340
a. 2.31 years
b. 2.56 years
c. 2.85 years
d. 3.16 years
e. 3.52 years
33. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
a. An NPV profile graph shows how a project’s payback varies as the cost of capital changes.
b. The NPV profile graph for a normal project will generally have a positive (upward) slope as the life of the project increases.
c. An NPV profile graph is designed to give decision makers an idea about how a project’s risk varies with its life.
d. An NPV profile graph is designed to give decision makers an idea about how a project’s contribution to the firm’s value varies with the cost of capital.
e. We cannot draw a project’s NPV profile unless we know the appropriate WACC for use in evaluating the project’s NPV.
34. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? Assume that the project being considered has normal cash flows, with one outflow followed by a series of inflows.
a. A project’s NPV is generally found by compounding the cash inflows at the WACC to find the terminal value (TV), then discounting the TV at the IRR to find its PV.
b. The higher the WACC used to calculate the NPV, the lower the calculated NPV will be.
c. If a project’s NPV is greater than zero, then its IRR must be less than the WACC.
d. If a project’s NPV is greater than zero, then its IRR must be less than zero.
e. The NPVs of relatively risky projects should be found using relatively low WACCs.
35. Datta Computer Systems is considering a project that has the following cash flow data. What is the project’s IRR? Note that a project’s projected IRR can be less than the WACC (and even negative), in which case it will be rejected.
Year 0 1 2 3
Cash flows -$1,100 $450 $470 $490
36. Masulis Inc. is considering a project that has the following cash flow and WACC data. What is the project’s discounted payback?
Year 0 1 2 3 4
Cash flows -$950 $525 $485 $445 $405
a. 1.61 years
b. 1.79 years
c. 1.99 years
d. 2.22 years
e. 2.44 years
37. Tesar Chemicals is considering Projects S and L, whose cash flows are shown below. These projects are mutually exclusive, equally risky, and not repeatable. The CEO believes the IRR is the best selection criterion, while the CFO advocates the NPV. If the decision is made by choosing the project with the higher IRR rather than the one with the higher NPV, how much, if any, value will be forgone, i.e., what’s the chosen NPV versus the maximum possible NPV? Note that (1) “true value” is measured by NPV, and (2) under some conditions the choice of IRR vs. NPV will have no effect on the value gained or lost.
Year 0 1 2 3 4
CFS -$1,100 $550 $600 $100 $100
CFL -$2,700 $650 $725 $800 $1,400
38. Yonan Inc. is considering Projects S and L, whose cash flows are shown below. These projects are mutually exclusive, equally risky, and not repeatable. If the decision is made by choosing the project with the shorter payback, some value may be forgone. How much value will be lost in this instance? Note that under some conditions choosing projects on the basis of the shorter payback will not cause value to be lost.
Year 0 1 2 3 4
CFS -$950 $500 $800 $0 $0
CFL -$2,100 $400 $800 $800 $1,000
39. A company is considering a new project. The CFO plans to calculate the project’s NPV by estimating the relevant cash flows for each year of the project’s life (i.e., the initial investment cost, the annual operating cash flows, and the terminal cash flow), then discounting those cash flows at the company’s overall WACC. Which one of the following factors should the CFO be sure to INCLUDE in the cash flows when estimating the relevant cash flows?
a. All sunk costs that have been incurred relating to the project.
b. All interest expenses on debt used to help finance the project.
c. The investment in working capital required to operate the project, even if that investment will be recovered at the end of the project’s life.
d. Sunk costs that have been incurred relating to the project, but only if those costs were incurred prior to the current year.
e. Effects of the project on other divisions of the firm, but only if those effects lower the project’s own direct cash flows.
40. Which one of the following would NOT result in incremental cash flows and thus should NOT be included in the capital budgeting analysis for a new product?
a. Using some of the firm’s high-quality factory floor space that is currently unused to produce the proposed new product. This space could be used for other products if it is not used for the project under consideration.
b. Revenues from an existing product would be lost as a result of customers switching to the new product.
c. Shipping and installation costs associated with a machine that would be used to produce the new product.
d. The cost of a study relating to the market for the new product that was completed last year. The results of this research were positive, and they led to the tentative decision to go ahead with the new product. The cost of the research was incurred and expensed for tax purposes last year.
e. It is learned that land the company owns and would use for the new project, if it is accepted, could be sold to another firm.
41. A company is considering a proposed new plant that would increase productive capacity. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
a. In calculating the project’s operating cash flows, the firm should not deduct financing costs such as interest expense, because financing costs are accounted for by discounting at the WACC. If interest were deducted when estimating cash flows, this would, in effect, “double count” it.
b. Since depreciation is a non-cash expense, the firm does not need to deal with depreciation when calculating the operating cash flows.
c. When estimating the project’s operating cash flows, it is important to include both opportunity costs and sunk costs, but the firm should ignore the cash flow effects of externalities since they are accounted for in the discounting process.
d. Capital budgeting decisions should be based on before-tax cash flows.
e. The WACC used to discount cash flows in a capital budgeting analysis should be calculated on a before-tax basis.
42. Fool Proof Software is considering a new project whose data are shown below. The equipment that would be used has a 3-year tax life, and the allowed depreciation rates for such property are 33%, 45%, 15%, and 7% for Years 1 through 4. Revenues and other operating costs are expected to be constant over the project’s 10-year expected life. What is the Year 1 cash flow?