Phonology and one is Syntax

Catalan (Italic, Indo-European — Spain)


Catalan is an Italic language spoken in Spain. Use the steps for phonemic analysis to determine the phonemic status of the following Catalan consonants.[1] List your environments. Compare [b] and [β], [d̪] and [ð], and [ɡ] and [ɣ]. Note that phonemic processes can apply across word boundaries. Therefore, you can ignore word boundaries when writing your environments.  Write a prose rule, and then attempt to write a formal rule using [±] features. You will be judged on the accuracy of your prose rule. I will use your attempt at a prose rule to determine where you stand with the course material.


1. [bastә] ‘enough!’ 25. [әlɣos] ‘the dog’
2. [d̪ew mew] ‘good God!’ 26. [eʎɣwaɲә] ‘he wins’
3. [gwajtә] ‘look!’ 27. [buvðiaɾi] ‘daily puff’
4. [әmigbɔ] ‘good friend’ 28. [әvɣa] ‘Afghan’
5. [ubd̪uliә] female name 29. [ʃɛvɣәʎart] ‘dashing chef’
6. [әmigd̪ulen] ‘bad friend’ 30. [әnaβә] ‘he went’ imperf.
7. [kabgos] ‘no dog’ 31. [lәβakә] ‘the cow’
8. [kambi] ‘change’ 32. [әzβos] ‘draft’
9. [um buto] ‘a button’ 33. [ezβlaw] ‘is blue’
10. [aɲbinen] ‘next year’ 34. [kәrβo] ‘coal’
11. [baŋbɔ] ‘good bench’ 35. [mar βunik] ‘pretty sea’
12. [sɛn̪d̪ә] ‘path’ 36. [rɔðә] ‘wheel’
13. [un̪d̪iә] ‘a day’ 37. [lәðɔnә] ‘the woman’
14. [somd̪ulens] ‘we are bad’ 38. [әzðәβәni] ‘to become’
15. [aɲd̪ulen] ‘bad year’ 39. [ezðu] ‘is hard’
16. [baŋd̪u] ‘hard bench’ 40. [kɔrðә] ‘rope’
17. [sәŋgunos] ‘bloody’ 41. [ɔrðiβi] ‘divine gold’
18. [uŋgos] ‘a dog’ 42. [әmiɣә] ‘friend’ fem.
19. [somgɾans] ‘we are big’ 43. [lәɣlɔɾiә] ‘the glory’
20. [aɲgluɾios] ‘glorious year’ 44. [d̪әzɣlәsa] ‘to defrost’
21. [әstalβis] ‘savings’ 45. [ezɣɾɔk] ‘is yellow’
22. [әlβuto] ‘the button’ 46. [әmarɣә] ‘bitter’ fem.
23. [eʎβa] ‘he goes’ 47. [mar ɣɾis] ‘grey
24. [kulɣa] ‘to bury’      

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