The Memoir structure
A Memoir is composed of a number of well-defined elements, such as a cover, table of contents, the
body, bibliography, annexes.
First pages of the Memoir
Cover sheet/first page
Table of contents
Table of diagrams/figures
Table of appendices/annexes
Introduction (it is not a summary!). This part is generally intended to introduce the general
context of the subject
Reading guide (dealing with the organization of your report); this index helps the reader
find the precise parts that may interest him/her.
Body of the Memoir
The body of the Memoir is the development of your Intership project work. Keep in mind that even if sufficient details shall be provided, this is also a synthesis exercise. The number of pages must be in accordance with the work done and with the need to be synthetic (30-40 pages for the body can be appropriate).
You should describe your project structure, the different phases, your achievements, etc.
The very technical parts, as well as the minutes of the meetings, the detailed Project Plan, etc. will be in appendices or outside the report.
Last Pages of the Memoir
Appendices: can complement the Memoir in order to present pertinent elements of
particular interest for the experts but not the common reader
Your confidentiality questionnaire (signed by the company)
The Memoir content
The best way to write a Memoir is to do it as you proceed with your work, not at the very end. You may of course improve or shorten already written parts as time goes. You should describe your choices and the work done as if it was aimed at somebody taking over your job. You must always justify your technical decisions
Caution: It happens that some Memoirs present the results of a collective activity. It is essential that the Memoir enables the members of the jury to understand your personal contribution in the project. To achieve that goal you must present the status of the project when you started. You will then explain your role, your achievements and your proposals.
The conclusion will highlight your proposals for the future of the project after the end of your Internship.
Typical parts of the body of your Memoir
This should be used as a check-list. It is not expected that you strictly follow the order below.
Presentation of the work environment (the company you work for, the department you
The work requested (description of the broader project to which your subject is related,
the technical and/or scientific and/or commercial interest (etc.) of this subject, etc.)
State of the art (research of data, other projects, context analysis, etc.)
Analysis of the need (analysis of the situation, analysis of the difficulties, observations,
work Scenarios, methodological choices for problem resolution, etc.)
The way you have handled the project (organization and structure of your work, project
Presentation of the various technical solutions which could answer the identified problem
(presentation of the various possible options / solutions to resolve the problem, advantages/drawbacks of each option or solution, presentation of the technical solution you have chosen and justification of the options which were chosen – for example in terms of cost, efficiency, sustainability, ease to be implemented, ease to be reused etc.)
Implementation (of the chosen action, results, verification/validation of the efficiency)
Critical viewpoint (critical viewpoint on your work : the limitations of your solutions, why
you had to follow some directions, what should be pursued ahead to finish the work, etc.)
Conclusions and perspectives (technical synthesis of the work performed and the
perspectives and recommendations for the future, work done versus planned, difficulties and constraints – time, availability of the users, project supervisor, ability to access to the information etc.)
For this program, we do not have strict requirements in terms of pages. But we can expect about 30- 40 pages for the body of the Memoir.
The Memoir style of writing
A Memoir must be beyond reproach as far as presentation and writing are concerned. Typos or syntax errors are of course banished but the organization of the document is also important. The readers, members of ENAC’s jury, expect a clear, easy to read, precise but concise document. The number of pages is irrelevant of its quality. Some readers are experts from the field, some aren’t. All must be able to appreciate it.
Favor a synthetic style, with balance/achievements diagrams, figures and a concise text
Using first person singular style is not mandatory and may be used to clearly identify your
Every chapter has to be readable independently from the others: a short introduction and,
at the end of the chapter, a transition to the following one is recommended, and when
necessary an intermediate conclusion to the chapter
The appearance of the Memoir shall be clear, sober and make use of style sheets
Any bibliography, figure etc. must be numbered and referenced in the text. All references
are compiled in the bibliography section
All the jargon terms must be explained
The first time you use an acronym, it has to be clearly defined and identified in the
The editing of your Memoir
Text: should be handed in right-hand page only and will be systematically printed on both sides (particular cases excepted)
Margins: should be 2,5 cm right and left, and 3 cm top and bottom of page
Pagination: at the bottom of page. Odd numbers are on right-hand pages and even
numbers on left-hand pages
The pages intentionally left blank may or may not be numbered. It is recommended to
point out the blank pages
Chapter headings always begin on the right hand page (front page)
Chapters and subchapters shall be adequately numbered
The cover should be laid out following the model as shown in Appendix B
The most frequent errors
The structure (chapters or paragraphs):
o lack of depth (ex: 1 chapter for 10 pages of text, without subchapters), o without numbering or page number,
o often nonexistent and when existing, frequently confused with the introduction.
The acknowledgments: o forgotten.
Figures and tables:
o without number, nor title, neither legend, o not referenced in the text,
o not explained in the text,
o too much detailed or too dense,
o sources are missing (bibliographical source is hardly quoted).
o too many used,
o rarely explained,
o forgotten in the glossary (planned for that purpose). Appendices
o used as hodgepodge
o forgotten in the table of contents (list of appendices), o rarely referenced in the text,
o not readable
o used for irrelevant elements.
o too long,
o too descriptive,
o full of mistakes,
o written in a very “spoken” style,
o in inadequacy with the title of the paragraph which includes it,
o introduction and conclusion generally miss for every chapter, lack of connection
between the various chapters. p(2)
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