RTV Silicone Mold Need mechanical engineer/designer

Design RTV Silicone Mold Need mechanical engineer/designer with experience designing RTV silicone mold for parts to mold in house. We prefer the design in Aluminum for best consistent results. Design in SolidWorks. Must submit editable files.

Designer for silicone mould Need help creating a file for silicone mould design for a small stylized steam diverter. Freelancer must have experience in this field, and speak English fluently.

Silicon Valley Startup Needs Help with Pricing Model I am in the process of building out Traction Hero, a scalable marketing agency in Silicon Valley. Traction Hero will help with every aspect of marketing. We are building Traction Hero department by department to control our growth and start launching to the public sooner rather than later. The first department we are launching is our Swag & Client Gifting department. Our goal is to launch this department next Monday, November 12 in time to help clients with holiday gifts for their customers, employees, and executive teams. We are initially building a catalogue of items that clients can choose from, and I have a very manual process going for the pricing of these items. I can share a spreadsheet with you to show you what I am doing. What I need is more of a system that will be competitive enough. This will allow me to hire someone to handle the pricing of the items based on this system, and it will help my colleague to price out individual swag requests that may not be included in our catalogues. This job is to help me come up with a pricing model that will work for this department, evaluating our costs and profit. This is an urgent job in that I need the work complete by Thursday. I believe it will take 2-6 hours. I am looking for someone who has experience doing startup financials and pricing models.

Needed STP format 3d drawing for silicone mold I need to get a 3d drawing in an STP format for a divider to be made for a stainless-steel lunchbox. The divider will be made from Silicone. I will be able to send the stainless-steel container so that it can be measured properly for the silicone insert. I have attached files below showing the details of the project.

Looking for a creative designer for plush toys / silicone animal toys Lumieworld is looking for talented designers to expand our catalogue of silicone animal night lights and plush sound soother toys. You will be creating animal designs such as the ones attached. We are looking to hire multiple designers and a premium bonus will be awarded to those that submit the best work, as well as a permanent position on our team. You will be designing a silicone cat and dolphin night light (check bear and bunny examples attached). As well as or various plush toy sound soothers (check owl attached). If you feel that you would make a great addition to our team please contact me for an interview.

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PhP Website repair/Update

Here are the details –

The Website was built and is not perfect.  Need to make it nearly perfect.

Images need to be replaced or resized, so that the site loads faster.  While I have a bunch of images, they will need to be resized, edited, etc so they fit the site nicely.

In addition, the site needs some items on each page removed or edited.  Such as removing information and replacing the information with buttons directing to other pages.

There is an interactive map on the site that will need to be fixed, as the icons do not match as they should.

It is not an easy task, and I need someone who can fix this site, and take on other sites.

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Marketing analysis CD Invèstèc Banquè (“CDI”)

Marketing analysis CD Invèstèc Banquè (“CDI”)

Question description
CD Invèstèc Banquè (“CDI”) is a large retail bank, headquartered in Munich and listed on the German Stock Exchange since 1945, having successfully established branches in Germany, Spain, Italy, Switzerland and the Netherlands. They employ approximately 13,789 people across 4,112 branches and are now looking to open branches in key locations in your country.

An immediate area of concern for the bank is that they need to update their technology and office systems. They haven’t updated it in over 10 years! Employees are finding it increasingly difficult to operate with multi-country clients as there is no central sharing platform for storing vital client information, meeting schedules, notes and presentations and it is becoming evident that there is a lack of collaboration between countries and this is affecting their brand and their business.

With their objective to move into other emerging markets, they want to look at this as an opportunity to move their IT system to Cloud, with privacy, security, and compliance practices of utmost importance. Their Board intend to leverage a wider vendor proposition in this area. After studying different options, the company’s Board have narrowed their focus to Microsoft and two of our competitors. CDI is a potential new and important client for Microsoft!

Your task is to provide the client with a paper of the technical proposal with all the necessary arguments for their business case in order for them to make a confident decision in favour of Microsoft Office 365.
You are fully aware that a decision (either way) will impact our business with this client. You know their key business strategy involves a rapid growth plan into new territories.

Things you may want to consider
•The goals of the client/their business objectives
•How Office 365 will align to their business objectives
•Performance and efficiencies of Office 365 to the client
•Any risks that would be associated with your proposed solution
•Consider promoting Microsoft as a leading Cloud services provider
•How you can demonstrate adding value for CDI’s business through your paper
Additional
Website: to Microsoft Office 365 http://office.microsoft.com/en-gb/business/

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Writer familiar with Shakespeares Hamle

Hi I am looking for someone very familiar with Shakespeare's play Hamlet to write  a 3/4 page essay contrasting the characters Hamlet and Claudius. The essay should be clear and written as simply as possible and use some relevant quotes from the play. I need to learn this essay off by Monday so the language should not be too superfluous. I have some notes I can share but refining the essay so I can actually remember points and write a well written piece under pressure is the goal. Most notes out there are long winded and impossible to remember. I also need another longer essay written also about Hamlet (2 pages) and again the goal is for me to be able to remember it. I need someone who can do this work immediately and enjoys writing well constructed essays that flow well as I have to get learning! If you do the first essay quickly and well I can hire you to do the second one.

The Fossil Records and Theories of Evolution

The Fossil Records and Theories of Evolution.

Introduction

In general, the term ‘evolution’ can imply a drastic or gradual change from a very broad perspective. Life on earth, the universe,galaxies, as also the earth in general have evolved through millions of years. In this essay we consider only one aspect of evolution emphasizing on evolution as a biological tool for change among species and consider fossil record as supportive of both evolution theories and also the other theories contrary to evolution. Evolution is the central unifying concept, a theory that successfully connects biology, palaeontology and other branches of science. Evolution is a gradual descent of organisms accompanied by changes that help the organisms to adjust and adapt to the surroundings. ‘Descent with modifications’ as Darwin contended implies changes in organisms in successive generations (Mayr, 1976). These changes are triggered by the derivation of new species and there is a change in the properties of populations of organisms and these properties tend to transcend the lifetime of any single individual. Newers pecies are modified versions of older species.

Although, individual organisms do not biologically evolve,populations evolve when heritable genetic materials are transmitted from one generation to another. Biological evolution can range from very limited changes to drastic transformations on a large scale changing the entire special together and bringing in new forms. Evolution can thus be defined as inheritable changes in populations of species that are spread and transmitted over many generations (Zimmer, 2002). It is also more scientifically defined as changes in the frequency of alleles within a gene pool carried through different generations as understood in the Darwinian version of the theory(Dawkins, 1989). Evolution studies are supported by detecting changes in gene frequency within a population and the fact that the theory of evolution emphasizes on a common ancestor, only indicates that two or more species show successive heritable changes in populations since they are separated from each other as distinct forms (Allen and Briggs, 1989). Most popular definitions of evolution however highlight not the transmission of heritable traits and changes but the processes of diversity that has given rise to millions of species from the most primitive organisms. Here however we move on to the evidence for and against evolution theories and the role of fossil record in this context. Some researchers claim that the theory of evolution has been supported by four primary sources that serve as evidence (Zimmer, 2002; Allenand Briggs, 1989):

  1. The fossil record that tracks changes in early and primitive forms of life
  2. The anatomical and chemical similarities in the constitutions of different species.
  3. The genetic changes observed and recorded in several living organisms over several generations
  4. The geographical spread and distribution of species that seems to suggest a definite pattern, and

The Fossil Record

Fossils are buried in rock layers as indentations of dead plant and animal materials. The totality of these artefacts and their impressions on the rock formations is considered a fossil record. Fossil record as we have briefly mentioned is the primary source of evidence supporting the theory of evolution and the gaps in these records ironically also forms the bone of contention taken up by anti-evolution theorists. Fossil records are used by scientists to understand the process of evolution in general, and the subsequent changes in several species at several times of the earth’s existence(Donovan and Paul, 1998).

The Fossil Record seems to provide an important clue to the changes in primitive and even now extinct species and this definitely helps us to frame a conceptual graph on how evolution has taken shape. Fossil and rock record forms the primary source of evidence collected by scientists for nearly400 years and the consequent database obtained is mainly observational. The fossil record among all other evidence gives a large database of documented changes in past life on earth. The use of Fossil record to study life forms on earth dates back to pre-Darwinian times and the changes in life forms could be studied from a sequence of layers of sedimentary rocks and fossils of different groups of species were found in each of these successive layers (SA, 1982).Sedimentary rocks are found widely across the earth’s surface and are formed when small particles of sand, mud or gravel, shell or other materials withered off by water or wind accumulates in sea beds and oceans. As these sediments pileup they bury shells, leaves, bones, and parts of living organisms. Layers of sediments are thus formed for every large period of time and all these layers become subsequently cemented to each other to become different layers of sandstone,limestone, shale and so on. Within these layers of sedimentary rocks the plant and animal remains become buried as fossils and are later revealed as fossil records (Allen and Briggs, 1989). From these fossil records several species have been identified, some of which are extinct and some of which have traits transitional between different major groups of organisms. Fossils of transitional forms actually give considerable evidence of species evolution over time. However there is not enough evidence through fossil records to conclusively prove evolution, as there are still talks of ‘missing links’ as very few and according to some, no transitional forms have been actually discovered. The Fossil record data available to us is incomplete and in conclusive at present.

During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries,William Smith, a British Engineer observed different assemblages of fossils preserved at different levels and different ages of rocks. These assemblages succeeded one another in a regular and determinable order (cited in, Wikipedia,2004). This was further bolstered by the fact that rocks collected from different locations showed similar fossil formations according to the different times they represented. Smith named this correlation of rock fossil data as the principle of faunal succession. The occurrence of faunal succession was one of the primary arguments of Darwin who used fossil evidence as supporting the theory of evolution.

Various modern approaches to the theory of evolution have been recently developed. Mayr claims that the theory of Punctuation for instance has two basic points that

  1. most or all evolutionary change occurs during speciation events, and
  2. most species usually enter a phase of total stasis after the end of the speciation process (which involves formation of new species).

Speciation thus involves transformation of species in geological time (Erwin and Anstey, 1995). Formation of new species is explained either by phyletic gradualism or a gradual steady transformation of species by phyletic evolution highlighting the deficiency of the fossil records, or by sympatric saltational speciation that highlighted punctuational equilibria and branching of species rather than transformation as lineages as the real explanation for evolution (Mayr and Provine, 1998). Biologists like Gould and Eldredge have also supported punctuation theories. Richard Dawkins on the other hand stresses on the principle of gene multiplication where genes as replicators seems to be the focal point of defining evolution (Sterelny, 2001).

In quite an important paper Volkenstein (1987) suggests that there can be no contradiction between punctuated equilibrium and phyletic gradualism if synergetics and theory of information are incorporated within the theory of evolution. Punctualism can be seen as phase transition maintaining the directionality of evolution. Volkenstein argues that Punctualism, non-adaptationism and neutralism form the triad of internally connected features of evolution.

Problems with Fossil Records

Of course at that point, the absence of a proper theory of evolution prevented Smith or other researchers from providing an explanation of the actual cause of faunal succession. The cause of faunal succession as is known today is mainly due to evolution of organisms and species that change,transform or become completely extinct, leaving behind their traces on earth as fossils. Age of rocks and the changes in species features are both determined by fossil record and faunal succession used as tools in bio stratigraphy. However fossil data show extremely few records of transitional species,organisms that can conclusively suggest how and when evolution of new and different species occurred (Donovan and Paul, 1998). Darwin himself suggested that the geological record itself is imperfect and incomplete and this is further strengthened by the fact that transitional species were short lived and had very narrow geographical range.

Radiometric and Carbon dating have made it possible to identify fossils more than 3.5 billion years old and have indicated that animal species may have appeared abruptly, a phenomenon which Darwin himself found difficult to accept. Even though one or two forms of organisms which may be considered as transient have been identified, there are no records of transitional plants and thus an evolutionary plant history could not be drawn as of yet. Along with these issues it has also been seen that most of the fossils found are of species which have existing forms and are either similar to existing species or are completely identical. The intermediate temporary stages as serve to act, as links between two related species seems to have been completely downplayed by the fossil data obtained. Animals seem to have remained more or less unchanged through all these years. Despite the collection of a huge number of fossils,nearly all of them being fossils of presently existing animals have created problems for the theory of evolution. It is a general belief that based on fossil discoveries already made, there will be little or no evidence that evolution had actually occurred and continues to occur (Donovan and Paul,1998). If animals die a natural death, they are usually decomposed even before being fossilized. However during sudden catastrophes can bury the animals and embed them deep in the earth. Some rocks and organisms that transformed to show fossils for years and decades were actually deposited within a short period of time.

Although Darwin based his arguments heavily on fossil record, most scientists now believe that fossil record is actually incompatible with evolutionary theory as no transitional links or intermediate forms have been discovered among this huge collection of fossils in all these years. This suggests that there is no real evidential data that the theory of evolution is in fact true. There is no evidence of partially evolved species or intermediate forms either in the past or in the present fossil record and the fossil record available is quite representative of all fossil data that will ever be collected. Evolution seems to point out towards more undefined and partially evolved species, fact completely undermined by available fossil record that shows well-defined organisms rather than gradual gradations. The incomplete fossil record is the primary bone of contention in the evolutionary debate and seems to give an edge to non-evolutionists.

Conclusion:

Considering all the aspects of the debate and gaps in fossil records and weighing this against evolution theories highlighting either generational transformation of lineages or drastic changes and speciation at specific periods, we can conclude that available gaps in fossil record may be more indicative and supportive towards speciation and abrupt changes rather than gradual evolution through phyletic transformation.

NHS Cervical Screening Programme: Liquid Based Cytology vs. Conventional Cytology

HS Cervical Screening Programme: Liquid Based Cytology vs. Conventional Cytology

Introduction

Cervical screening, such as the regular programme provided by the NHS, is a very successful way of detecting the early signs of cervical cancer (Kitchener, Castle, & Cox, 2006). The NHS programme screens around 3.5 million (Moss et al., 2003) to 4 million (Karnon et al., 2004) women annually and it is estimated that this prevents between 1100 and 3900 cases of cervical cancer a year (Moss et al., 2003). In recent years a new way of screening the cervical samples has been developed. This is referred to as liquid based cytology rather than conventional cytology. However, there has been considerable debate over the costs and benefits of the new technology, as will be examined below.

Background Information

Cervical cancer is linked to human papillomaviruses (HPV), a family of common sexually transmitted viruses (Eifel, Berek, & Markman, 2011). It is believed to be fairly common for women to be exposed to HPV viral cells but usually these are readily cleared by their immune response (Bosch & Iftner, 2005). However, in some instances women can develop an HPV infection following exposure to viral cells. The infection can seem largely asymptomatic but actually causes the abnormal multiplication of cells in the cervix, leading to warts, lesions or benign tumours and, if the infection persists, it can cause cervical cancer (Bosch & Iftner, 2005; Eifel et al., 2011). In fact, HPV is believed to be the main, perhaps even the sole, cause of cervical cancer.

The NHS cervical screening programme is available to women aged between 25 and 64 years of age and involves taking a regular swab or smear of cells from inside their cervix (Moss et al., 2003). These are then sent to a pathology laboratory where they are screened by a cytologist for any abnormalities associated with HPV. In the absence of any abnormalities women between the ages of 25 and 50 years are advised to return for testing every three years, and those aged between 50 and 64, every five years (Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2013). The 2013 national statistics for the UK screening programme indicated that 78.3% of eligible women were up to date with their smear screening (Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2013).

Cervical Cytology

The focus of this essay is on the process that takes place in the pathology laboratory, where the cervical samples are sent for cytological screening. A cervical cell sample that has no abnormal cells is categorised cytologically as being negative (negative for the presence of HPV or risk of cervical cancer). Alternatively, samples may be identified as containing borderline abnormal changes, or having dyskaryosis (Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2013). In some literature the terms dysplasia or CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) seem to be used in place of dyskaryosis (Eifel et al., 2011), but NHS literature seems to make most consistent reference to dyskaryosis. The extent of dyskaryosis is then classified across a range from mild to severe. Depending upon the severity, the woman may be referred for colposcopy or recalled for a repeat cervical smear test 6-12 months later. In the 2013 national statistics, 6.5% of cervical samples were identified as being abnormal, although only 1.2% were classified as being high risk (Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2013).

Recently a new cytological screening technique has been developed, called liquid based cytology (LBC). The aim of this new method was initially to try to reduce false-negative and false-positive results (Karnon et al., 2004; Siebers et al., 2009), as well as the number of samples that are ‘inadequate’ or ‘unsatisfactory’ for effective screening (Arbyn et al., 2008; Siebers et al., 2009). In the conventional cytology method, a woman’s cervical sample is transferred directly from the collection spatula onto a microscopic slide (Arbyn et al., 2008; Moss et al., 2003). This transfer process seems to sometimes lead samples to be ‘inadequate’ for screening because the transferred cells are too difficult to clearly discern. This manual process does also, very occasionally, result in false results, even when conducted by experienced cytologists. The liquid based cytology (LBC) method involves a slightly different approach to the preparation of the slides. The cell sample is placed into a vial containing a preservative fluid (Arbyn et al., 2008; Moss et al., 2003). This creates a liquid suspension of the sample, which can then be poured onto the slide in a very thin, uniform layer. However, debate remains over whether this method really offers a substantial improvement over conventional cytology. The main points of contention surround accuracy and cost effectiveness, with other arguments relating to patient anxiety and opportunities for HPV testing.

Exploring the Issues

Accuracy

Evidence is mixed over whether LBC offers a substantial improvement in accuracy compared to conventional cytology. Early studies, such as that by Monsonego et al. (2001), were very favourable towards LBC. Further, in an extension of the LBC technique described earlier, it became possible for a computerised system to read the LBC slides to identify potential areas of concern prior to examination by a cytologist (Davey et al., 2007). Across a large Australian sample of over 55,000 women, Davey et al. (2007) found that this method of LBC was significantly better at detecting additional high grade histology cases than conventional cytology. However, more recent studies seem to undermine these reputed improvements of LBC over conventional cytology. For instance, in 2009, Siebers et al, drawing upon a sample of close to 90,000 women in the Netherlands, concluded that LBC “is neither more sensitive nor more specific in detecting CIN or cancer” (p.1764). This same point is reiterated almost exactly by Arbyn et al. (2008) at the end of their thorough review of the most reputable, gold standard comparison studies.

Whilst this creates a somewhat inconclusive picture, it is evident that LBC has not offered as marked an improvement in accuracy as might have been hoped. However, it is important to point out that none of the studies suggest that LBC is less accurate than conventional cytology. In fact, all of the studies mentioned above agree that LBC probably is more sensitive at picking up mild abnormalities and changes. It is just that this too is framed from a negative angle in the more recent studies because of concerns that unnecessarily following up these cases, when they are likely to be cleared by the patient naturally, would waste resources that would be better focused on high risk patients (Arbyn et al., 2008).

There is, however, one clear point that emerges in favour of LBC in relation to accuracy. All studies seem to conclude that LBC does reduce the number of inadequate or unsatisfactory samples (Arbyn et al., 2008; Davey et al., 2007; Doyle et al., 2006; Moss et al., 2003; Siebers et al., 2009; Williams, 2006). For example, when LBC was initially trialled at three sites in the UK in 2002, Moss et al. (2003) collated data showing that LBC reduced inadequate slide preparations from 9% of samples down to 1-2%. In Scotland the difference was even greater, falling from 13% to 1.9%, and consequently referrals to colposcopy for women with repeated unsatisfactory results dropped from 25% to just 0.5% (Williams, 2006). These improvements substantially raise the efficiency of the whole screening programme. Therefore, it seems likely to have been these sorts of results that influenced the NHS that it would be cost effective to adopt LBC across the UK (Arbyn et al., 2008; Moss et al., 2003; Williams, 2006).

Cost Effectiveness

Turning to cost effectiveness, there are a number of aspects to take into consideration. As mentioned above, LBC may lead to a potential increase in costs if there is an increase in following up low risk abnormalities. Whilst this is framed negatively by Arbyn et al. (2008) it might be better, both for the patient and economically, to fully confirm that there is no cancer risk earlier on, rather than allowing any potential cancer to develop. Further, the significant reduction in inadequate samples may outweigh this through much larger potential savings. Reducing the number of women who are recalled due to an inadequate sample saves valuable nursing time, reduces administration costs and reduces the costs associated with repeating the whole procedure. With these primary care benefits in mind, Moss et al. (2003) estimated that LBC could generate savings of between one to ten million pounds annually.

More recent studies have focused on the laboratory to consider whether LBC improves productivity during this part of the process. Doyle et al. (2006) studied several laboratories during the change over from conventional cytology to LBC and found that on average each scientist was able to process more samples per day. The data collated by Williams (2006) similarly demonstrated that overall workload in the laboratories decreased and backlogs were cleared. Presumably, if LBC is combined with the computerised imaging technology that automates a large part of the process, there may be further efficiency as cytologist time and effort can be focused on the samples identified to contain abnormalities.

Of course, all of this economising does not take into account the initial investment costs involved, or the on-going cost of the LBC specific materials. It is notable that both techniques mentioned in the NHS pilot study, ThinPrep and SurePath, are registered trademarks. Perhaps this is why more recent studies tend to argue that one of the disadvantages of LBC is that it is more expensive, both in terms of initial outlay and on-going operating costs (Arbyn et al., 2008; Eifel et al., 2011). Therefore, Arbyn et al. (2008) suggest that “economic advantage might be peculiar to the United Kingdom where inadequacy rates for the conventional Pap were excessively high” (p.175).

Patient Anxiety

Beyond economics, another important point to consider is patient anxiety. A benefit of reducing inadequate samples is the reduction in anxiety for the patient. Although the nurse may try to reassure the woman that an inadequate sample does not indicate any abnormality, it may be difficult for the patient not to fear a risk of cancer. On the otherhand, if minor abnormalities picked up via LBC are followed up, as Arbyn et al. (2008) suggest, this might create unnecessary stress and anxiety for these patients and their families. This seems to suggest that between the two technologies patient anxiety may balance out – being alleviated for some patients or created for others. However, perhaps the balance swings in favour of LBC here, as it would seem preferable to monitor cases of mild abnormality just in case these progress, rather than to create unnecessary anxiety due simply to technical inferiority.

HPV Testing

The other key advantage of LBC is the potential it offers to conduct additional laboratory tests. Preparing an LBC slide from the cervical sample uses only a small amount of the solution in the vial. Therefore, the remainder can be subjected to further tests. In particular, it is now possible for laboratories to test for the presence of HPV using HPV DNA testing (Kitchener et al., 2011). Any cases showing cell abnormalities during LBC can undergo HPV testing on the same sample. This might clarify any false-negative cases or mild abnormalities without the woman even knowing. It would also reduce the costs of referring false-negative patients for colposcopy or for an unnecessary recall screening.

Whilst controversy has largely focused on conventional cytology and LBC, the NHS actually introduced LBC in combination with HPV testing (Moss et al., 2003). Recent studies have demonstrated that HPV testing may be more powerful than cytology, and suggest it may come to replace cytology as the primary screening technique (Katki et al., 2011; Kitchener et al., 2011). Katki et al. 2011 advocate that one negative result via HPV testing offers “strong reassurance against cervical cancer for five years in women from age 30” (p.1470). This could significantly reduce primary care costs as currently women aged 30-50 are tested every 3 years under the NHS screening programme. Kitchener et al. (2011) have gone further than this, suggesting that HPV testing might even allow the interval between cervical screens to be extended to every six years.

Conclusion

There has been significant debate around the shift from conventional to liquid based cytology when screening for cervical cancer. This has been particularly heightened given the evidence that LBC does not appear to reduce false-positive or false-negative results in the way that had been hoped. However, in the UK at least, LBC significantly reduces the number of ‘inadequate’ samples, reducing primary care costs and patient anxiety in these cases. Although it is a little unclear whether LBC is more cost effective when all costs are taken into consideration, it seems that by investing in the technique the NHS is now well placed to quickly and easily adopt new scientific developments, such as wide-scale HPV testing. Given LBC, HPV DNA testing and the HPV vaccination, cervical cancer prevention seems to be a rapidly advancing area of science where new developments progress fairly quickly from research into routine health practice. Therefore, it seems wise that the NHS chose to invest in LBC and HPV testing when it did so that it can keep apace, and continue to offer cutting edge cancer screening to women.

References

Arbyn, M., Bergeron, C., Klinkhamer, P., Martin-Hirsch, P., Siebers, A. G., & Bulten, J. (2008). Liquid compared with conventional cervical cytology: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 111(1), 167-177.

Bosch, X. F., & Iftner, T. (2005). The aetiology of cervical cancer. Sheffield: NHS Cancer Screening Programmes.

Davey, E., d’Assuncao, J., Irwig, L., Macaskill, P., Chan, S. F., Richards, A., & Farnsworth, A. (2007). Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study (Vol. 335).

Doyle, B., O’Farrell, C., Mah

The Interrelationship Between the Systems of the Human Body

The Interrelationship Between the Systems of the Human Body

Introduction

This essay will consider the structure and function of the 11 systems within the human body. It will detail the interrelationship between the nervous system and the musculoskeletal system and between the circulatory system and the lymphatic system. It will then explain the roles of the circulatory and lymphatic systems in the immune response and the role of hormones in metabolism.

Human Body Systems

The human body is made up of 11 separate but interconnected systems (Sherwood, 2007). These are the skeletal, muscular, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory, nervous, integumentary, immune, endocrine and reproductive systems. The success and survival of the human body is dependent on the ability of separate body systems to work together.

The skeletal system provides structure for the human body, stores minerals, produces blood cells and provides protection for delicate organs (Kelly, 2004). 206 bones are connected with ligaments, muscles and tendons, with cartilage, a softer cushion like material, providing protection in jointed areas. Body movements are controlled by the muscular system, with these muscles being connected to bones via tendons (Adams, 2004). Stimulation of these muscles by the nervous system causes contraction and the resulting movement of bones to which they are attached. A number of involuntary muscles ensure the respiratory and circulatory systems continue with contraction of the heart and lungs (Adams, 2004). The heart is central to the circulatory system and acts as to pump blood through arteries, veins and capillaries. The circulatory system is responsible for delivering nutrients and oxygen to cells as well as removing waste products and aiding the immune system through the circulation of white blood cells (Jacab, 2006). The immune system is comprised of lymph organs, such as the spleen and thymus, and the skin, all of which are responsible for protecting the body against invading pathogens (Parham, 2005).

The circulatory system and the respiratory system are closely interconnected with the latter bringing fresh oxygen into the body through the alveoli of the lungs (Johnson, 2004). The respiratory system is closely connected with the excretory system as it is responsible for the removal of carbon dioxide and other waste gases through exhalation. The excretory system eliminates both solid and liquid wastes in addition to these gaseous products, and is made up of a number of specialist tissues along with the large intestine, bladder, kidneys, rectum, lungs and skin (Sherwood, 2007). The physical and chemical breakdown of food into energy is carried out by the digestive system. This system commences with the mouth, teeth and salivary glands then passes through the oesophagus to the stomach and small intestine for digestion. The liver, pancreas and large intestine are also involved, through the production of digestive enzymes and bile and the processing of nutrients (Windelspecht, 2004).

The nervous system is responsible for sending messages to and from the brain through neurons. The nervous system controls all bodily functions by sending electrochemical signals through the neural network (Llamas, 1998). The endocrine system acts as a communication network but uses hormones as chemical messengers which travel through the bloodstream (Klosterman, 2009). The hormones have specific target organs and carry signals to start or stop performing a specific function. Finally, the reproductive system is responsible for the production of children and reproductive hormones cause our bodies to develop into sexual maturity.

Relationship between the nervous and musculoskeletal system

Muscle is a contractile tissue that can be histologically divided into three types. These are: striated or skeletal muscle, which are under direct nervous control; cardiac muscle, which is also striated but is a specialist form that is confined specifically to the heart; and smooth or visceral muscle, which is not under direct nervous control (Nair and Peate, 2013). This latter form can be found in the walls of blood vessels and the alimentary tract and in arrector pili. Smooth muscle is usually in the form of flat sheets and forms circular and longitudinal layers, or can be arranged as a sphincter in order to control passage through a tube, for example the anus (Ikebe, 1996). Skeletal muscle is usually attached to two separate bones via tendon, fleshy or aponeurosis connections.

Muscle action control is carried out by the nervous system (Stein, 1982). Contact between nerves and muscles often occurs through chemical stimulus conveyed by motor end plates, which instruct muscles to contract. Signals can also be sent through tendons via specific receptors that are able to measure the stretch of the tendon (Stein, 1982). Messages from nerves are referred to as efferent when they take a message to a specific tissue and afferent when they are taking the message to the spinal cord and brain (Craig, 2005). As such the nervous system comprises two separate but combined systems. These are the central and peripheral nervous systems, with the former being made up of the brain and spinal cord, and the latter comprising the remaining neural network (Cervero, 1988). This neural network comprises 12 pairs of head nerves connected to the brain and 31 pairs of spinal nerves connected to the spinal cord. Nerves which transfer information from receptors within the body to the central nervous system are sensoric nerves, whilst nerves that transport information from the CNS to muscle fibres are motoric nerves (Cervero, 1988). As such, the peripheral nervous system comprises collections of nerves, their insulating myelin sheaths, Schwann cells and connective tissue. The majority of these nerve cells are able to carry out efferent and afferent cell processes (Craig, 2005).

Figure 1 shows the organisation of a neuron, with the body being the axon and the smaller projections being known as dendrites. The neuron uses the dendrites to obtain and pass information from and to other neurons (Spruston, 2008). The axon passes the information to other cells particularly muscle cells. The information is then passed along the neuron through voltage changes within the cell membrane. This is known as the action potential (Bean, 2007). Information transfer between individual nerve cells occurs through chemical agents which are released when the action potential has reached the end of an axon.

The organisation of a neuron
Figure 1. The organisation of a neuron (Biomedical Engineering, 2016).

Relationship between the circulatory and lymphatic systems

These systems primarily comprise of the body’s blood circulating and waste removal capabilities. The two systems are significantly intertwined and work collectively to transport substances throughout the body (Sherwood, 2007). Both systems work in a similar manner as they both produce a liquid substance, either lymph or blood, which flows through a network of vessels and ducts to reach every part of the body. Both of these liquid substances are responsible for carrying nutrients or removing waste and are therefore both circulatory in nature (Sherwood, 2007).

The primary role of the circulatory system is the transport of blood throughout the body. It comprises the heartand a network of veins, arteries and capillaries that move oxygenated blood to the body’s tissues and deoxygenated blood and waste products away from body tissues (Johnson, 2004). This crucial blood transport system carries nutrients, oxygen and fluids throughout the body, which are needed for normal cell activity.

The primary role of the lymphatic system is waste removal. When muscles absorb unneeded material, lymph fluid picks up this waste product and transports it to the lymph nodes (Cueni and Detmar, 2006). This system is responsible for eliminating old red blood cells, which means that the lymphatic system is effectively the circulatory system’s waste disposal unit. Blood plays a major role in the creation of lymph as blood plasma develops into interstitial fluid after contact with body tissues (Wu et al, 2013). Some of this interstitial fluid enters the lymphatic vessels where it develops into lymph. As such, one of the major responsibilities of the lymphatic system is to act as a drain for the interstitial fluid surrounding tissues. This clear fluid is carried through the lymphatic vessels into lymphatic ducts and through lymph nodes where lymphocytes attack foreign bodies and pathogens (Alitalo et al, 2005). After passing through these areas, the lymph passes into the large brachiocephalic or subclavian veins and re-enters the circulatory system.

Role of the circulatory and lymphatic system in the immune response

Whilst the circulatory system is responsible for the transport of blood, oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the body, it is also often responsible for the carriage of bacteria and other pathogens throughout the body. The lymphatic system isa crucial part of the body’s immune response to these pathogenic invasions (Bajenoff et al, 2007). Lymphoid tissue, which is found in a number of organs, specifically in the lymph nodes and in lymphoid follicles that are associated with the digestive system, including the tonsils, contains lymphocytes. The lymphatic system also includes bone marrow, the thymus and the spleen, along with other dedicated circulatory and lymphocyte production structures (Bajenoff et al, 2007). There are two types of lymphocyte with the first type being responsible for directly attacking any invading pathogen and the second type being responsible for the production of antibodies that then circulate within the bloodstream and attack any further invading pathogens (Bajenoff et al, 2007). Any invading foreign particle or pathogen is picked up by the lymph and transported through the lymph vessels to the regional lymph nodes. Within these lymph nodes, dendritic cells and macrophages phagocytose the antigens, before processing them and presenting these foreign antigens to the lymphocytes (Wei et al, 2003). These lymphocytes then produce antibodies or act as memory cells, which are responsible for recognising specific antigen attacks in the future, thereby improving the speed of the immune response. As such, the lymphatic system can be described as a system responsible for both transport and defence. Figure 2 shows a diagram of the human lymphatic system showing the network of lymph nodes and connecting lymphatic vessels.

Circulatory system

Role of hormones in the metabolic process

In order to control nutrient intake, store any excess and utilise the stores when necessary, a number of hormones are used. Insulin and glucagon are the two primary hormones responsible for maintaining blood glucose homeostasis, additional regulation is also mediated by thyroid hormones (Patel et al, 2008). Beta cells of the pancreas produce insulin after stimulation from a rise in blood glucose levels. Insulin is responsible for lowering blood glucose levels by increasing the rate of glucose uptake and by encouraging target cells to use this glucose for the production of ATP. The liver is also stimulated to convert glucose to glycogen with the latter being stored for later use. Glucose transport proteins are incorporated into cell membranes when insulin bind to these target cells via receptors and through signal transduction (Patel et al, 2008). This method allows for the transport of glucose into the cell where it can be used as a source of energy. This results in the lowering of blood glucose concentrations which then results in a negative feedback loop and inhibits further insulin release from the beta cells.

When blood glucose levels drop below normal levels, usually between meals or when glucose is being utilised through exercise, the pancreas releases the hormone glucagon (Patel et al, 2008). Glucagon is responsible for raising blood glucose levels through eliciting the hyperglycemic effect. This is the breakdown of glycogen to glucose within the liver cells and skeletal muscle in a process known as glycogenolysis. This free glucose can then be utilised as energy by the muscle cells whilst the liver releases glucose into circulation for use by other key organs (Patel et al, 2008). Glucagon also stimulates the liver to absorb amino acids from the blood, with this organ then being responsible for conversion of these amino acids to glucose. This synthesis of glucose is named gluconeogenesis (Patel et al, 2008). Any rise above normal levels in blood glucose levels is also controlled buy a negative feedback loop with any further release of glucagon by the pancreas being halted. Therefore, homeostatic glucose levels are controlled by insulin and glucagon working together.

References

  • Adams, A. (2004). The muscular system. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Alitalo, K., Tammela, T., & Petrova, T. V. (2005). Lymphangiogenesis in development and human disease. Nature, 438(7070), 946-953.
  • Bajénoff, M., Egen, J. G., Qi, H., Huang, A. Y., Castellino, F., & Germain, R. N. (2007). Highways, byways and breadcrumbs: directing lymphocyte traffic in the lymph node. Trends in Immunology, 28(8), 346-352.
  • Bean, B. P. (2007). The action potential in mammalian central neurons. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8(6), 451-465.
  • Biomedical Engineering (2016). Biomedical Advances: Neuron Damage. [online] Available at: http://biomedicalengineering.yolasite.com/neurons.php [Accessed 2 Feb. 2016].
  • Cervero, F. (1988). Organization of the autonomic nervous system — Central and peripheral mechanisms. Pain, 33(3), p.390.
  • Craig, A. (2005). Forebrain emotional asymmetry: a neuroanatomical basis? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(12), pp.566-571.
  • Cueni, L. N., & Detmar, M. (2006). New insights into the molecular control of the lymphatic vascular system and its role in disease. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 126(10), 2167-2177.
  • Ikebe, M. (1996). Contractile Mechanisms: Biochemistry of Smooth Muscle Contraction. Science, 274(5286), pp.367b-368b.
  • Jakab, C. (2006). The circulatory system. North Mankato, MN: Smart Apple Media.
  • Johnson, R. (2004). Respiration and circulation. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic.
  • Kelly, E. (2004). The skeletal system. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Klosterman, L. (2009). Endocrine system. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark.
  • Llamas, A. (1998). The nervous system. Milwaukee, Wis.: Gareth Stevens Pub.
  • Nair, M. and Peate, I. (2013). Fundamentals of applied pathophysiology. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Parham, P. (2005). The immune system. N

Conflict Between Greek Revival and Gothic Revival

Conflict Between Greek Revival and Gothic Revival

The Greek Revival and the Gothic Revival are terms that carry specific meanings in relation to the history of architecture. What did they represent at the time and what was the nature of the conflict between the respective adherents?

The Gothic Revival represented chiefly two things: firstly, in its earlier form, it was a Romantic celebration in stone of the spirit and atmosphere of the Middle Ages; secondly, in its later and more serious form, the Gothic Revival reflected the architectural and philosophical conviction of its exponents that the moral vigour of the Middle Ages was reflected in its Gothic architecture, and that the reintroduction of this Gothic style of architecture to eighteenth-century society could re-invigorate it morally. Neo-Gothic architecture in its earlier forms, typified by buildings such as Horace Walpole’s Strawberry Hill, was characterized by a highly ornamental, decadent, visually powerful and intricate style; and, what is more, a style that cared little for functionalism or strict adherence to specific structures. By these characteristics Neo-Gothic architecture encapsulated the Romantic literary and poetic spirit of the age, as had been evinced in the works of men like Horace Walpole, Alfred Tennyson and Sir Walter Scott. In this sense, the Neo-Gothic was a nostalgic and sentimental backward glance. In a different sense the Gothic Revival represented the attempt of certain architects and churchmen to transfer the liturgical vigour of Gothic churches of the Middle Ages to the eighteenth century by capturing it in stone. Thus men like Augustus Pugin and John Ruskin came to argue that the Gothic Revival represented a standard of moral excellence that was to be practised and imitated as widely as possible.

The Greek Revival grew out of the neoclassicism movement, and represented in essence an attempt by its adherents to find in the architecture of antiquity a form of architecture that corresponded to the principles of reason and order emerging from their own Age of Reason and Enlightenment. Neoclassicism, and the Greek Revival in particular, represented a pursuit for architectural and intellectual truth. An architect could perceive in the forms of antiquity principles of excellent reasoning and intelligence that prevailed in the rationalistic spirit of his own age, and by reinvigorating the ancient style the neoclassical architect could build buildings that were inspired by and inspired in others principles of reason and rationality. Neoclassicism and the Greek Revival conflicted with the Gothic Revival because they perceived the moral truths claimed by the Gothic revivalists as chiefly illusory and false. The Gothic Revival was, in the neo-classicist’s eyes, a decadent celebration of style over substance that elevated illusion and ornament above reason and truth. Neo-Gothic architects were seemingly content to produce endless copies and weak imitations of Gothic style merely to please frivolous aristocrats; neo-classicists however believed that their architecture was a creative act that gave birth to constantly new adaptations of the classical model. Neo-Gothic architects in turn conflicted with neoclassicism because it was cold and devoid of emotion, feeling or moral purpose; its elite attitude rendered any collaboration between the two styles most difficult.

Art historians divide the Gothic Revival into two stages, and each of these stages came to represent quite different ideas. The first stage of the Gothic revival was characterized a ‘raw’ and naive imitation of Gothic architecture that lacked either an architectural philosophy or a coherent system of organization. The first building of this early type was Lord Horace Walpole’s villa Strawberry Hill which was built in 1747; another prominent early specimen was Fonthill Abbey designed and built by James Wyatt. Both of these buildings, in the spirit of Walpole’s atmospheric novel Castle of Otranto (Walpole, 2004), were attempts to preserve in stone the Romantic atmosphere of the Middle Ages; both also demonstrated perhaps more clearly than any other buildings of this time the impracticality and lack of structure of much Neo-Gothic building. This first flourishing of Neo-Gothic architecture was extended into the public sphere also: for instance in the new Houses of Parliament designed and built by Sir Charles Barry and A.W. Pugin. In America too, this nascent Neo-Gothic style was reflected in buildings such as Richard Upjohn’s Trinity Church built in New York in 1840 and Renwick’s St. Patrick’s Cathedral also built in New York. The picturesque quality and organization of many of these buildings led to applause for its Romantic splendour, but also much criticism for its lack of substance and for its unfaithful imitation of the original Gothic form.

If the first stage of the Gothic Revival lacked diligent observation and restoration of Gothic architecture or philosophical principles, then serious efforts were made at the turn of the century to ground the movement more securely upon such principles. The ‘late’ period of Neo-Gothic is thus characterized by a stricter adherence to medieval architectural form and to a philosophical interpretation that viewed Gothic architecture as a paragon of moral virtue and excellence. In England two men were of foremost importance in the development of this second stage: A. Pugin and J. Ruskin. (In France, Eugene-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Due played an equally important role). By this time, architects were no longer content to merely imitate Gothic forms and designs, but sought to create original works founded upon the principles of the original Gothic architecture and which fitted to the particular circumstances of nineteenth-century society.

Thus at the turn of the nineteenth-century it is possible to observe a clear evolution in the form of the Gothic Revival away from the loose sentimentality and picturesque quality of the early period and towards a style of dominated by precise architectural limitation of Gothic form as made possible by detailed and comprehensive investigations into this style. One such early investigation was John Carter’s The Ancient Architecture of England (Carter, 1795) which was the first work that recorded with extensive detail and exactitude the Gothic style of medieval buildings; Thomas Rickman’s An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture (Rickman, 1817) gave an extensive account of the varieties of Gothic styles, whilst Pugin’s Specimens of Gothic Architecture (Pugin,1821) deepened and extended the range and accuracy of these initial investigations. Nonetheless, despite the great advances that had been made in the scholarship of the Gothic Revival, the actual building of Gothic buildings remained for some time in the earlier ornamental style that characterized the first period of the movement — famous examples being Windsor Castle which was restored in 1824 by Sir Jeffrey Wyatville, and King’s College Cambridge in 1827to 1831. The greatest use of the Neo-Gothic style at this time was however for church buildings — the style being cheaper and easier to construct than neoclassical designs.

For all the diligent and pain-staking work of the Gothic Revival scholars to come to life in actual buildings it took the skill and vision of one particular man. This man was Augustus Charles Pugin: he presented the argument that Neo-Gothic architectural style was the most fitting emblem of the spirit of the Catholic Church and so was also therefore the only permissible architectural form to express the work of Godin his Church. In Contrasts (1836) Pugin argued that architectural form imitates the condition of the society that creates it; since the society of medieval times was a paragon of virtue and moral integrity then it was natural and obvious that Gothic architecture is the most moral form of architecture. Thus in The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture (1841) Pugin was able to set down comprehensive and coherent principles for the justification of the Gothic Revival. In a major step away from the earlier decadence or the style, Pugin argued that all features and designs of a church must be essential for its correct functioning and structural shape; architecture form must be clean and purposeful since these are also the qualities that we expect of our moral condition. Pugin put this architectural philosophy into practice most assiduously in the years 1837 to 1844: in St Mary’s Church in Derby, in St. Wilfred’s Church in Manchester and in St. Oswald’s Church in Liverpool and many other church buildings. Pugin’s work quickly became an inspiration for Anglican Church reformers such as the Tractarians in Oxford who used his architectural church style as an ideal form by which to carry out their own agenda of church building restoration.

It should be noted here that Pugin’s work as well as that of many other architects across Britain and Europe was profoundly influenced by the ideas of John Ruskin and his two seminal works The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849) and The Stones of Venice (Ruskin,1854). Ruskin’s ideas were inspired by the architectural forms that he had seen in Italy and particularly in Venice; Ruskin thus argued that Gothic was the supreme form of architecture due to the ‘sacrifice’ made by stonemasons in detailing every stone of a building. Ruskin thus exalted Doge’s Palace as ‘ the central building in the world‘ (Ruskin, 1854) — arguing that Pugin’s programme of Gothic Revival in churches should be extended to government buildings also. Moreover, Ruskin himself by his teachings extended the Gothic Revival further by promoting a ‘polychromatic’ style of work inspired by Italian Gothic architecture. This work in turn inspired buildings such as Butterfield’s All Saint’s Church, Keble College in Oxford and Rugby School.

In short, by the end of the eighteenth century the Gothic Revival had been transformed from what began as a Romantically inspired fondness for majestic ornamentalism, into a style of architecture grounded upon powerful moral and philosophical principles as well as an intricate and comprehensive awareness of Gothic form.

The Greek Revival, a growth out of the neoclassicism movement, flourished in the years 1750-1830, and was in many ways the antithesis of the Neo-Gothic form of architecture with which it was contemporaneous. As we have seen, whatever its later manifestations, the Gothic Revival had been a product of Romanticism and of the passions and emotions; the Greek Revival, in complete contrast, exalted reason, the intellect and rationality above all else. Neoclassicism sought as its highest aim to realize architectural and intellectual purity and truth — in stark contrast to what it perceived to be the ornamentalism and illusory truth of the Neo-Gothic style. ‘Neo’-classicism was founded upon a corpus of work that had in antiquity achieved canonical status, that is, it was based upon the observation of ‘classic’ art and classic form. In the words of Crook (1995) ‘ Ideally – and neoclassicism is essentially an art of the ideal – an artist, well-schooled and comfortably familiar with the canon, does not repeat in a lifeless reproductions, but synthesizes the tradition anew in each work ‘. In other words, neoclassicism — of which the Greek Revival was to become the most refined example — sought the highest possible levels of artistic achievement; the neo-classicist style existed only to reinterpret for contemporary circumstances the great work and principles that had already been achieved in the past. Thus, in Crook’s words (1995), ‘Neoclassicism exhibits perfect control of an idiom’ (Crook,1995); that is perfection already achieved, the architect’s task is to fit that perfection of antiquity in a modern cast. All of these above points are significant for understanding the opposition of architects of the Greek Revival against the Gothic Revival. For, in the beginning, much of Neo-Gothic architecture consisted of little more than crude and naive imitations of far superior original Gothic works. Thus in such imitation work there was no creativity and no continuation of the development of an existing idiom. Thus Neo-Gothic form was viewed by Greek revivalists as superfluous and as inferior to their own architectural pursuits.

The emergence of the Greek Revival was made possible by an astonishing efflorescence of archaeological exploration into the sites and cultures of classical Rome and Greece around the middle of the eighteenth century. The discoveries of the archaeologists inspired and sustained the Greek revival. In 1719 Bernard de Montfaucon’s released his giant ten-volume opus Antiquity Explained and Represented in Diagrams (Montfaucon, 1719). This book was hugely popular and intrigued the imaginations hundreds and thousands of European tourists who began to flock to the sites of ancient Rome and Greece. Furthermore, the sensational excavations of cities like Pompeii and Herculaneum in 1748 and 1738 further fuelled the imaginations of architects, archaeologists, novelists and many others. Many other works on classical art and architecture such as Giovanni Piranesi’sPrima Parte di Architecttura, Robert Wood’s Ruins of Palmyra (1753) and Robert Adam’s Ruins of the Temple of the Emperor Diocletian (Adam’s, 1764)were soon published and led to still further thousands going on adventures to the Continent.

This general interest in classical antiquity quickly transformed in the eighteenth century into a burst of fascination with Greek antiquities in particular and displayed a conviction as to the superiority of Greek above Roman architecture. The discovery of the sixth-century ruins of Paestrum received much publicity and was recorded by Italian artist Domenico Antonini and French architect Jacques-Germain Soufflot; soon afterwards Pancrazi published his seminal Antichita Siciliane and Dumont released his Ruins de Paestrum. Deeper investigation into the Greek mainland territory led James Stuart and Nicholas Revett to publish The Antiquities of Athens (Stuart & Revett, 1750) which was highly influential upon architects in England. Whilst it took some time for this appreciation of Greek form to be turned into actual imitative buildings nonetheless the superiority of Greek to Roman architecture had been established by the time of Johan Winckelmann’s Reflections on the Painting and Sculpture of the Greeks in 1765.

Thus architects of the Greek Revival sought to infer from these classical forms principles of order and reason that corresponded to those being discovered in their own age of Enlightenment; neoclassical architects argued that if their own buildings came to embody these principles then society at large would be edified by the experience. Nonetheless, the Greek Revival, like Neoclassicism generally, contained an inherent paradox. Its longing backward-stare to the times of antiquity was inspired by as much by an emotional fondness for antiquity (supposedly the characteristic of the Romantic Gothic Revival) as a predilection for principles of pure reason and rationality. Thus some twentieth century arthistorians have come to speak of this aspect of the Greek Revival as ‘Romantic Classicism’ (Stillman, 1998).

After 1800, in England, the internal dynamics of Neoclassicism directed the movement away from Roman architecture and toward that of ancient Greece – as such, a huge number of buildings were built in these years according to the architectural principles of ancient Greece. Sir John Soane, the architect of the Bank of England, developed a highly influential architectural style that involved promoting the linear abstraction of classical Greek forms and, by using extensive archaeological evidence to inform the designs of patterns, he achieved a spectacular dramatization of the interior spaces of his buildings — a style reminiscent of Etienne-Louis Boullee and Claude-Nicholas Ledoux on the continent. A prominent example of this new style in England was Downing College, Cambridge, modelled upon the Erechtheum from the Acropolis in Athens. The Covent Garden Theatre in London, built by Sir Robert Smirke, was the first Doric style building in the capital; the planning of Regent Street as well as Regent Street Park by John Nash reflected the use of classical Greek styles of city planning and organization. So too the British Museum in London built in 1847 is perhaps the most prominent example of ionic Greek imitation in Britain. In Edinburgh — named admiringly the’ Athens of the North’ by locals at the time — the Greek Revival was extremely influential in the eighteenth century, as shown in buildings such as the Royal High School and the Royal Scottish Academy. The dominance of Greek neoclassical architecture would dominate the British landscape until the advent of Modernism in the twentieth century.

In the final analysis, even if it is paradoxical to say so in light of the sustained conflict that existed between them, both the Gothic Revival and Greek Revival had similar goals, and used similar means to attain those goals. The Gothic Revival began life as a celebration of the spirit and forms of a time other than its own: the Middle Ages. So too, the Greek Revival was engendered by a renascent fascination with classical archaeology and the Greek Revival’s preoccupation was with the ideals and forms of ancient Greece – somewhere even more removed than Medieval Europe! The Greek Revival ultimately represented an attempt to renew and reinvigorate the classical Greek belief in the purity and perfection of architectural form and its corresponding revelation of ‘truth’. It was thus no coincidence that the spirit of the neoclassical age was also dominated by the Enlightenment and the Age of Reason. The Greek Revival thus cast the ancient principles of classical Greece in the mould of eighteenth century rationality; the aim here, like with the later Gothic Revival, being to produce a form of architecture that would edify society. The bitter conflict between the Gothic Revival and the Greek Revival can be explained simply by the fact that each were prepossessed by attitudes quite contrary to the other: one exalting reason and order, the other passion and emotion. Both revivals were each consumed in the whirlwind of their own zeitgeist and only with retrospect and the other advantages of history is it possible show the equal validity of their separate truths.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adam, R. (1764). Ruins of the Temple of the Emperor Diocletian. Graham Henry, London.

Atterbury, P. (1996). A.W.N. Pugin: Master of the Gothic Revival. Yale University Press, Yale.

Carter, J. (1795). The Ancient Architecture of England. Sawsbury Press, Sawsbury.

Crook, J.M. (1995). The Greek Revival: Neoclassical Attitudes in British Architecture 1760-1870. John Murray, London.

Eastlake, C.L. (1970). A History of the Gothic Revival. Leicester University Press, Leicester.

Ferguson, F.G. (1973). The Neo-Classical Architecture of James Wyatt. Harvard University Press, Massachusetts .

Hamlin, T. (1946). Greek Revival Architecture in America. Open University Press, London.

Montfaucon, B. (1719). Antiquity Explained and Represented in Diagrams. London.

Pugin, A, P. (1821). Specimens of Gothic Architecture. Nattali Press, London.

Pugin, P,A. (1836). Contrasts. Peter Cough Books, London.

Pugin, P,A. (1844). The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture. Berry Press, Burnside.

Rickman, T. (1817). An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture. Threebells Press, Glasgow.

Ruskin, J. (1849). The Seven Lamps of Architecture. Trent House Press, London.

Ruskin, J. (1854). The Stones of Venice. Trent House Press, London.

Stillman, D. (1998). English Neo-Classical Architecture Vol.1. W Zwemmer, London.

Stuart, J. & Revett, N.(1750). The Antiquities of Athens. Dasterfield Press, Bedford.

Walpole, H. (2004). The Castle of Otranto. David & Charles, Newton Abbott.

Wiebenson, D. (1969). Sources of Greek Revival Architecture. A Zwemmer, London.

Winckelman, J. (1765). Reflections on the Paintings and Sculptures of the Greeks. John Paul, Edinburgh.

Wood, R. (1753). Ruins of Palmyra. Falstaff Press, Dublin.

Art Concept Article

Art Concept Article

Journal entry for Readings

This essay provides a very good understanding about Art and I found it very interesting. Art is basically a conceptual concept. In other words, it can be defined as a creation, which is created by the will of person. As per my study, different forms of art exist but the author has laid the emphasis on graphic art. In this type of art, the design is created on a material like Plexiglas or rubber so as to move the designs onto another medium like wood, paper, cloth, metals, and plastics etc.

In the present scenario, Japanese manga are inspiring the comic artists of the west, fashion designers, modern artists and millions of ordinary readers. The appearance of the wide-eyed figures of manga are found over t-shirts, video games, CD covers and even in the museums of art (Manga and Japanese Contemporary Art, 2005).

I found the article very informative as it depicts the collection of the most appealing artists from modern manga and also tells me about the different variety of manga styles. It also contains the prints of woodblock by Hokusai. The exhibition of graphic art and its program of events depict the fan culture, which is closely linked with manga. The examples include cosplay or dressing similar to the manga characters.

This program of events permits the visitors to attempt their hand at manga, listen to lectures on modern Japanese culture and also provides an experience of singing karaoke. In this article, the author has depicted cute and funny figures along with the strange and aggressive figures similar to those of manga (Manga and Japanese Contemporary Art, 2005).

Journal entry for controversies

In my point of view, art is created by the mind. It is the blend of ideas and concepts. In my point of view, art should be such, which doesn’t hamper any religion, values or beliefs i.e. art should form the basis of inspiration for the viewers by containing effective messages in it. But if the art is developed for a particular reason, it might lead into big controversies (Cox, 2006).

A controversial event took place in the Dallas Museum of Art. Here, Sydney McGee who was a teacher (female) took a group of children aged 9 to 10, in Frisco from Fisher Elementary School to the Art museum of Dallas. It was found that the father of a child has filed a complaint that his child has been exposed to art which was absolutely unauthorized as he was shown an abstract nude. As a result, this brought controversy upon the school. Therefore, art should be created so that it is appreciated by its viewers and creates a good impact on them (Cox, 2006).

Another controversial issue was that Hitler could not become part of the art school because it was painted in a traditional style and hence, was not able to fulfil the criteria of the art school. Art school requires a contemporary way of painting, which is less realistic. Hitler, during his regime, barred new artists, who were selling artwork and was in favour of the traditional artists. Art varies from place to place and as a result to this, the frequency of controversy increases.

Journal entry for movies

I found certain movies like Girl with a Pearl Earring and The Agony and the Ecstasy very artistic. Both of these movies have depicted art in their content but in different ways. In the movie Girl with a Pearl Earring, an artistic temperament is depicted by girl. The movie reveals an artistic passion.

The photography in the film is very sensuous, showing the golden age of Dutch culture. The pictures in the photography contain fantastic colour and scale, crowded with plentiful costumes and magnificent architecture. This photographic art keeps the eyes engaged.

In 1930s, the art scene in America was greatly dominated by the practicality and regionalism. The film on Jackson Pollock by Ed Harris presents a powerful picture of Jackson Pollock. The film has performed in an outstanding manner by evoking the true feeling of the time duration with the help of the costumes and scenery. The film depicts the darker side of Pollock’s life as he struggled with demons. This movie became the centre of attention for those American people who liked the modern art.

Art in Exile

On the other hand, the film Agony and ecstasy shows huge interesting reflection of art. It is characterized as the superior period piece, which became an epic. I really appreciate this movie as it pictured Charles Heston as the grand artist. I really found it fairly attractive, the way they have displayed the stressed relationship. The movie depicts the true sense of the art and love. This movie clearly describes how art can move the soul of the person. I admire the extent of time spent by chuck in learning how to paint (Reed, 1965).

Journal entry for the relevance with the Puerto Rico:

In the late 20th century Graffiti has turned into a well-known force in urban settings. The extent of attitudes towards graffiti has shown a broad and contentious concept. Most of the writers regard the graffiti as a social term, which was introduced for culture around 70’s. Therefore, I would use graffiti as writing.

The tradition of folk art for carving the santos i.e. using saints of wood for house hold devotion forms the par of Puerto Rican culture. The santos from the past served as the prime object of devotion, but at present they form the part of artistic merit, which is because of the link with the ancient culture of Puerto Rico.

Both the old and new santos of Puerto Rican function continuously in a devotional framework for a few number of their owners and santeros. For the carvers of Puerto Rico, carving a santos forms a religious experience (Dennant, 1997).

Graffiti showed inter connected factors to the world of hip-hop, sometime also studied as a part of its own entity. Graffiti depicts an artistic aspect of confrontation towards the authority and simultaneously reflects expression towards subculture. I have found that in the early time of Christianity, saints were given honour as role models, courageous heroes and guardians.

In the present time the carving of the santeros remind me of the fundamental task played by these holy pictures in the everyday lives of supporters. From the point of dedication towards the signs of Puerto Rican traditions and art, the modern santos from Puerto Rico fit into the highly prosperous tradition, which goes forward to progress in response to the changes in the political, social and religious context.

References

Manga and Japanese Contemporary Art. (2005). Retrieved August 23, 2008 from http://www.taidemuseo.hel.fi/english/tennispalatsi/programme/manga.html

The Santos Tradition. (2004). University of Florida. Retrieved August 23, 2008 from http://www.harn.ufl.edu/santos/introduction.php

Carol Reed (1965). The Agony & The Ecstasy. [ONLINE] Available at: http://charltonhestonworld2.homestead.com/AgonyEcstasyPg1.html. [Last Accessed 23 August 2008].

Ian Cox (2006). Teacher Sacked Over Nude. [ONLINE] Available at: http://coxsoft.blogspot.co.uk/2006/10/teacher-sacked-over-nude.html. [Last Accessed 23 August 2008].

Pamela Dennant (1997). The Emergence of Graffiti in New York City. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.hiphop-network.com/articles/graffitiarticles/emergenceofnycitygraffiti.asp. [Last Accessed 23 August 2008].

Arts of the Renaissance period

Arts of the Renaissance period Essay

Introduction

Some of the artists known for their work of art in the Renaissance period consist of Giovanni Bellini, Leonardo Da Vinci, Titian, Michelangelo and Raphael. The Renaissance was a time period in which stunning sculptures and artwork increased all over the world (Denna’s World: The Renaissance, 2008). It described the high points of humanism and the expression of creativity and beauty of life. The Renaissance period rapidly approached the simplicity, monumentality and heftiness of the art of Renaissance of the early 16th century (Denna’s World: The Renaissance, 2008).

Artists and their contribution

The three artists which I have chosen are Leonardo de Vinci, Raphael and Michelangelo.

Leonardo Da Vinci

Leonardo Da Vinci was the incarnation of the Renaissance ideal of the universal man. He was the first artist to achieve comprehensive mastery all over the branches of art (Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 – 1519), 2008). Besides being a scholar in the natural sciences, medicine and philosophy, Vinci was a painter, sculptor, architect and engineer. He was an Italian painter, draftsman, sculptor whose brilliant paintings characterized the Renaissance humanist ideal. His art contribution includes: The last supper, Mona Lisa and St. Jerome in the Wilderness (Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 – 1519), 2008).

The last Supper

The Last Supper is a 15th century painting created by Leonardo Da Vinci for his supporters. His painting particularly portrays the reaction given by each follower when Jesus said one of them would deceive him (Leonardo Da Vinci, 2008). With various degrees of anger and shock, all twelve apostles have different reactions to the news.

Mona Lisa:

During the Italian Renaissance, Mona Lisa is a 16th century portrait painted in oil by Leonardo Da Vinci. The painting depicts a woman whose expression is often described as enigmatic (Leonardo Da Vinci, 2008). The ambiguity of the sitter’s expression, the monumentality of the half-figure composition and the subtle forms of modeling were the qualities that have contributed to the fascination in the painting (Leonardo Da Vinci, 2008).

St. Jerome in the Wilderness

This painting was an unfinished painting by Leonardo Da Vinci. The painting depicts Saint Jerome during his draw back to the Syrian Desert, where he lived the life of a solitary person (Leonardo Da Vinci, 2008).

Raphael Sanzio

Raphael was an Italian painter and designer of the Renaissance period. He was known for the excellence and refinement of his paintings and drawings. Raphael is best known for his large shape compositions in the Vatican in Rome (Raphael, 2008).

Vision of knight

The theme of the painting was controversial. The painting depicts a sleeping knight who was dreaming to choose between Virtue and Pleasure. There were two feminine figures that were representing as the ideal attributes of the knight (Raphael, 2008). The picture holds the ideals of a scholar, soldier and lover.

Madonna and the child

The painting describes a woman known as Madonna who is holding the Christ Child with enormous kindheartedness. The pictures itself says that they two are linked in such a way that any reader can read the book which is open for all (Raphael, 2008).

Connestabile Madonna

The Connestabile Madonna is a small and unfinished painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. The painting reveals the Madonna holding the Child while reading a book (Raphael, 2008).

Michelangelo: Michelangelo was a sculptor, painter, architect, and poet who usually used to make the use of an unparalleled influence on the expansion of Western art.

Bacchus: Bacchus is a marble sculpture designed by Michelangelo. The statue represents Bacchus, the Roman god of wine, in a revolutionary intoxicated state. Bacchus is shown with rolling eyes, with staggering body, almost teetering off the rocky outcrop, sitting behind a faun and eating the bunch of grapes that are slipping out of his left hand (Michelangelo, 2005).

David: It is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture and one of the greatest works of Michelangelo. The painting describes the statue of the young Israelite king David that almost without doubt holds the title of the most identifiable stone sculpture in the history of art. The picture is regarded both the symbol of strength and youthful human beauty (Michelangelo, 2005).

Pieta: it is a marble sculpture designed by the Michelangelo. This work of art gives a picture of the body of Jesus on the knees of his mother Mary after the excruciation. The theme is basically of Northern origin (Michelangelo, 2005).

I have chosen these particular pieces because their work is admired for the clarity of form and ease of composition and for the visual achievement of the ideal of human dignity. The structural design of the Italian Renaissance period is the most lucid and comprehensive volume available till today.

The painting of these artists extravagantly illustrates the readers everything they need to know about the architectural life of the paintings and drawings. The art in Renaissance shows the freshness and breadth of approaches used by the artists. The drawings of the renaissance period focus on works of art, their creators and the state of affairs that affect the creation. The sculpture of Michelangelo defines the work of art very clearly and specifically.

Renaissance period

The renaissance period was a period of attractive artwork and structures. These pictures and sculptures boomed all over the Western Europe. The renaissance period of art was expected to commence in Rome, but it started out in Italy where there was always a remainder of classical-styled structural design (Denna’s World: The Renaissance, 2008). In renaissance period, there was a greater interest in the depictions of pattern and color.

Color was underlined by utilizing the diverse marble inlays, for example, the front wall of the church of the Certosa di Pavia and Venetian structural design. There were many painters and sculptors from the period of renaissance period. All these paintings and the sculptures are the important work of art and also balance the Renaissance ideals of classical beauty with naturalism (Denna’s World: The Renaissance, 2008).

The museums which I visited at the end of the essay are Musée du Louvre in Paris and Vatican Museums, Rome.

References

Denna’s World; The Renaissance,(2008). Retrieved June 11, 2008 from http://www.dworldonline.com/REN.HTM

Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 – 1519). Retrieved June 11, 2008 from http://www.theartgallery.com.au/ArtEducation/greatartists/DaVinci/about/

Leonardo Da Vinci, (2008). Retrieved June 11, 2008 from http://www.abcgallery.com/L/leonardo/leonardo.html

Michelangelo, (2005). Retrieved June 11, 2008 from http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/michelangelo/

Raphael, (2008). Retrieved June 11, 2008 from http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/raphael/